Tag: Causes of allergy
Updated on November 5, 2016
Allergy is sensitization of the body to different antigens, mediated by different types of immunogenic cells, for example:
- Food products
- Inhaled particles etc.
These are the conditions which are caused when the immune system gets hyper-sensitized.
Mechanics of allergy
When any allergen, unwanted particle or antigen enters into the body, different types of substances are released from sensitized cells. These substances are mostly histamine and serotonin. Hypersensitivity is the exaggerated form of allergy. There are four types of hypersensitivities depending on the basis of time and type of mediators involved.
- Type 1 Immediate (allergy) e.g. Asthma and Anaphylaxis. Mediator involved is Immunoglobulin E.
- Type 2 Antigen-antibody dependent. E.g. hemolytic anemia. Mediator involved is Immunoglobulin M and G.
- Type 3 Immune Complex E.g. serum sickness. Mediator involved is Immunoglobulin G and cells (neutrophils).
- Type 4 Delayed type. E.g. Dermatitis and tissue rejection (one that is transplanted). Mediator involved are T cells.
Symptoms of allergies
There are many evident symptoms of allergies which can be observed by anyone. This include:
- Wet or a dry cough.
- Itching and redness on major parts of the body, muscles or genitals.
- Frequent Vomits with continuous nausea.
- Diarrhea and Constipation.
- Sleeplessness and frequent headaches.
- Low or high-grade fever.
How to diagnose allergy
Doctors use different types of methods and tests, where most commonly used is skin sensitization. Another easy option is the identification of different types of immunoglobulin by ELISA.
How to fight allergy
This disease is pretty much irritating and demoralizing. No one wants to have it, anyone suffering from allergies wants treatment. Fighting it is not an easy job. The best way to avoid it is not to present an allergy target and avoid antigens / particles or situations. The trick for avoiding allergy is to avoid harmful food. For aerial allergies, we need to wear a mask. Hot fluids are very effective in fighting allergies and soothing symptoms. There exist many other home based remedies, which are effective person to person, as guided by the family doctor. If allergy gets old and doesn’t get controlled by these precautionary measures, then medicine come into play. Medicines are in the form of:
- Aerosol sprays.
Drugs and treatment
- Steroids can be used for skin allergies and as inhalers for allergies like asthma. Steroids do carry along their side effects.
- Histamine receptor blockers which block histamine actions are very effective especially if use during early stages of allergy.
- Mast cell stabilizers stop the release of histamine
- Leukotriene receptor blocker e.g. Montelukast